chlorine gas exposure

Posted on: January 7th, 2021 by No Comments

On June 8, 2010, chlorine gas was released from a ruptured, 1-ton, low-pressure tank being recycled at a California metal recycling facility. Although generally less severe, these events may be extremely common. -, Wenck MA, Van Sickle D, Drociuk D, Belflower A, Youngblood C, Whisnant MD, Taylor R, Rudnick V, Gibson JJ. Epub 2019 Dec 4. OBJECTIVE Acute exposure to chlorine causes lung damage, and recovery may proceed slowly for several weeks. doi: 10.4178/epih.e2020041. Chlorine gas is not flammable but it can react explosively with other chemicals such as turpentine and ammonia. Chronic exposure to 15 ppm produced coughing, hemoptysis, chest pain, and sore throat. In this study, we describe the screening for chlorinated biomolecules by the use of mass isotope ratio filters followed by the identification of two biomarkers present in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from chlorine gas exposed mice. Am J Clin Pathol. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan. Would you like email updates of new search results? Proc Am Thorac Soc. Chlorine gas exposure and the lung: a review. Chlorine gas exposure at a metal recycling facility--California, 2010. White, C Adelson L, Kaufman J. 2020 Mar 1;320:73-79. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2019.12.005.  |  Public Health Rep. 2007 Nov-Dec;122(6):784-92. Because of its strong odor, chlorine gas can be detected easily. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol.  |  National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan–. The gas is very irritating, and it is unlikely that any person would remain in such an exposure for more than a very brief time unless the person is trapped or unconscious 10 NIOSH IDLH: The airborne concentration that poses an immediate threat to life, would cause irreversible adverse health effects, or would impair an individual's ability to escape from a dangerous atmosphere. We conducted a review of the literature detailing the respiratory effects of chlorine, an extremely important but toxic halogen. Chlorine poisoning can occur when you touch, swallow, or inhale chlorine. Rapid assessment of exposure to chlorine released from a train derailment and resulting health impact. NIH Although these findings are intriguing, additional study is needed to better delineate the risk factors that predispose toward the development of long-term pulmonary sequelae following chlorine gas exposure. At higher levels, breathing chlorine gas may result in changes in breathing rate and coughing, and damage to the lungs. There may also be skin irritations or chemical burns and eye irritation or conjunctivitis. One-year inhalation toxicity study of chlorine in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). 2005 May-Jun;183(3):151-67. doi: 10.1007/s00408-004-2530-3. 2020;42:e2020041. 2017 Jan 15;315:1-11. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2016.11.017. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Symptoms of chlorine gas exposure include burning of the conjunctiva, throat, and the bronchial tree. Acute, high level exposure to chlorine gas in occupational or environmental settings results in a variety of dose-related lung effects ranging from respiratory mucus membrane irritation to pulmonary edema. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! USA.gov. The potential risk for exposure to chlorine gas is widespread, since chlorine is used or generated during many industrial processes, which include the manufacture of plastics, the purification of water, and the production of hydrochloric acid. Choking agents and chlorine gas - History, pathophysiology, clinical effects and treatment. Chlorine dioxide (gas). Historically, the heaviest mass inhalational exposures to chlorine resulted from World War I gassing. 9(3):439-55. . About 45 people in the area were exposed to smoke and chlorine gas from the fire, but were treated and most have returned to duty, the statement said. This is particularly true if there is a buildup of fluid in the lungs, as this can cause chronic lung damage. Symptoms and signs following inhalation of mixtures of chlorine-containing cleaners in the home are similar to those after occupational exposures and environmental releases. Maternal death of a hemophilic patient due to the inhaling of a mixture of industrial bleach and detergents-A case study. Exposure to chlorine can be fatal. Musah S, Schlueter CF, Humphrey DM Jr, Powell KS, Roberts AM, Hoyle GW. Currently potential human exposure to chlorine inhalation occurs in a variety of settings in the workplace, as a result of inadvertent environmental releases, and even in the home due to household cleaning mishaps. Prevention and treatment information (HHS). Epub 2020 Jun 6. Fatal chlorine poisoning: report of two cases with clinicopathologic correlation. 2010 Jul;7(4):290-3. doi: 10.1513/pats.201001-006SM. Civilian exposure to chlorine gas: A systematic review. Since it is heavier than air, the gas will settle in low places and begin to fill a room. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Exposure to chlorine at any stage of pregnancy would not usually be regarded as medical grounds for termination of pregnancy or any additional fetal monitoring. When the body is exposed to chlorine gas poisoning, the respiratory system is usually the first to be affected. HHS Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2017 Dec;55(10):1072-1252. 2019 Oct 1:1-13. doi: 10.1080/15376516.2019.1669244. Wheezing, coughing and chest tightness may follow. Controlled human exposure data suggest that some subjects may be more responsive to the effects of chlorine gas; epidemiologic data also indicate that certain subpopulations (e.g., smokers) may be at greater risk of adverse outcome after chlorine inhalation. Chlorine (Cl₂) is a greenish-yellow gas with a pungent, irritating odor. Chlorine reacts with water outside of the body and on mucosal surfaces inside … Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2020 Mar 1;320:73-79. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2019.12.005. Clear yellow or amber liquid (under 0.2.3 VITAL SIGNS 0.2.3.1 ACUTE A) WITH Abedi P, Mohaghegh Z, Faramazi N, Aghamiri ZBS. Toxicol Lett. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 1993 May-Jun. Skin injuries similar to frostbite can occur if it is exposed to liquid chlorine. When released, it rapidly forms a yellow-green gas that stays close to the ground and spreads rapidly. Musah S, Chen J, Schlueter C, Humphrey DM Jr, Stocke K, Hoyle MI, Hoyle GW. -, Gummin DD, Mowry JB, Spyker DA, Brooks DE, Fraser MO, Banner W. 2016 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers' National Poison Data System (NPDS): 34th Annual Report. Klonne DR, Ulrich CE, Riley MG, Hamm TE Jr, Morgan KT, Barrow CS. Toxicol Mech Methods. 1993 May-Jun;9(3):439-55. Toxicol Lett. 1987 Oct;9(3):557-72. doi: 10.1016/0272-0590(87)90037-6. Epub 2018 Sep 3. Clin Case Rep. 2020 Nov 12;9(1):376-379. doi: 10.1002/ccr3.3535. The risks of chlorine exposure depend upon the severity. : 7782-50-5 Other Names: Liquefied chlorine gas, Chlorine gas Main Uses: Manufacture of other chemicals, bleaching agent, water purification. A person with chlorine gas poisoning may also have nausea, vomiting, or a headache. At home, a mixture of chlorine bleach with other household products that contain acid or ammonia is a common source of exposure to chlorine gas.  |  Toxic effects of chlorine gas and potential treatments: a literature review. Proc Am Thorac Soc. There will generally be sneezing, nose irritation, burning sensations, and throat irritations. Online ahead of print. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Validating Signs and Symptoms From An Actual Mass Casualty Incident to Characterize An Irritant Gas Syndrome Agent (IGSA) Exposure: A First Step in The Development of a Novel IGSA Triage Algorithm. By contrast, workplace and public (swimming pools, etc.) Acute, high level exposure to chlorine gas in occupational or environmental settings results in a variety of dose-related lung effects ranging from respiratory mucus membrane irritation to pulmonary edema. Chlorine gas exposure can have serious long-term effects Depending on the concentration of the gas, and on the duration of the exposure, individuals can experience serious long-term effects. 1971 Oct. 56. NLM Chlorine Gas Exposure & Trees by Dr. Kim D. Coder, Professor of Tree Biology & Health Care Warnell School of Forestry & Natural Resources, University of Georgia Chlorine is both a useful element and a dangerous element. Pulmonary function This site needs JavaScript to work properly. -, Das R, Blanc PD. 2008 Sep;26(2):113-22. Toxicity to chlorine gas depends on the dose and duration of exposure. However, other risk factors may be present in individual cases which COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Exposure to chlorine gas can cause severe irritation to the eyes, mucous membranes, and skin. Toxicol Lett. Epub 2016 Nov 30. Chronic exposure to chlorine gas is one of the most frequent causes of occupational asthma. Acute, high level exposure to chlorine gas in occupational or environmental settings results in a variety of dose-related lung effects ranging from respiratory mucus membrane irritation to pulmonary edema. The … Acute chlorine gas exposure produces transient inflammation and a progressive alteration in surfactant composition with accompanying mechanical dysfunction. Chlorine is a yellow-green gas at room temperature. Fortunately, it is easily Inhibition of chlorine-induced airway fibrosis by budesonide. The signs of acute chlorine gas poisoning are primarily respiratory, and include difficulty breathing and cough; listening to the lungs will generally reveal crackles. ... 6,7 Chlorine gas exposure presents a potential for moderate to severe morbidity because of its strongly irritant properties. INGESTION EXPOSURE: Chlorine is present as a gas at room temperature, so ingestion is unlikely. Changes in spirometric parameters after protective interventions among workers at a chlorine production plant in Iran. Long-term health complications typically develop in people who have fluid in their lungs after the initial chlorine exposure. NLM Copyright © 2021, StatPearls Publishing LLC. 2020 Oct 27. Pulmonary function testing can reveal either obstructive or restrictive deficits immediately following exposure, with resolution over time in the majority of cases. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. However, currently, there are no analytical methods available to unambiguously prove chlorine gas exposure. Additional symptoms of exposure to chlorine can be severe. Potential for chlorine gas-induced injury in the extrapulmonary vasculature. Chlorine exists as a gas at normal temperature and pressure. Toxicology and applied pharmacology, 278(1), 53-64. Gaseous chlorine is poisonous and classified as a pulmonary irritant. INHALATION EXPOSURE: Lung injury Humans can come into contact with chlorine gas during short-term, high-level exposures due to traffic or rail accidents, spills, or other disasters. The short term respiratory effects of acute chlorine inhalation during a swimming pool accident were examined. Sevoflurane as a therapy for acute chlorine gas exposure in an austere healthcare environment: a case report. Today, most incidents of chlorine exposure are through accidental industrial or household exposures. Toxicol Ind Health. Appearance: Green - yellow gas. Exposure to chlorine can be fatal. Chlorine is also expected to react with cloud particulates and rain drops that it comes METHODS A total of 282 subjects (134 children, aged <14 years) inhaled hydrogen chloride and sodium hypochlorite during an accident caused by a malfunction … eCollection 2021 Jan. Pahlevan D, Shomali A, Pooryahya S, Mansori K, Mirmohammadkhani M, Malek F. Epidemiol Health. CHLORINE DIOXIDE page 2 of 6 This Fact Sheet is a summary source of information of all potential and most severe health hazards that may result from exposure. The biggest danger when working with chlorine is a gas leak. Chlorine species are highly reactive; tissue injury results from exposure to chlorine, hydrochloric acid, hypochlorous acid, or chloramines. It has intermediate water solubility with the capability of causing acute damage to the upper and lower respiratory tract. Epub 2017 Mar 28. Symptoms of chlorine gas exposure include burning of the conjunctiva, throat, and the bronchial tree. Exposure to escaping liquid chlorine may result in frostbite injury and/or chemical burns. It can be recognised by its pungent, irritating, bleach-like odour which usually provides warning of exposure. NIH 2017 Jul;43(4):333-338. doi: 10.1016/j.jen.2016.11.001. -. Prevention and treatment information (HHS). Epub 2019 Dec 4. Higher concentrations can produce bronchospasm, lower pulmonary injury, and delayed pulmonary edema. At concentrations of 1 to 3 ppm chlorine gas acts as an eye and oral mucous membrane irritant, at 15 ppm there is an onset of pulmonary symptoms, and it can be fatal at 430 ppm within 30 minutes. Toxicol Ind Health. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Immediately or shortly after exposure to 30 ppm or more of chlorine gas, a person may have: Chest pain Vomiting Coughing Difficulty breathing Excess fluid in their lungs Exposure to 430 ppm in air for 30 minutes will cause death. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Chlorine is routinely added to drinking water to make it safe for consumption, though too much chlorine could be dangerous. If exposed to the gas, workers should get out of the area immediately and seek first aid. Once exposed, a burning sensation in the nose, throat, and eyes will be experienced. During or immediately after exposure to dangerous concentrations of chlorine, the following signs and symptoms may develop: Blurred vision. As for industrial exposures, there have been several instances of train accidents carrying liquid chlorine that caused the release of chlorine gas to the surrounding environment. 2010 Jul;7(4):257-63. doi: 10.1513/pats.201001-008SM. Chlorine gas exposure and the lung: a review. exposures are more frequently long-term, low-level exposures, occasionally punctuated by unintentional transient increases. HHS Chlorine is a yellow-green, noncombustible gas with a pungent, irritating odor. Proc Am Thorac Soc. If inhaled, the gas will cause the pH of the blood to plummet, and may result in severe headache, vomiting, partial blindness and pulmonary edema. Chlorine gas has many industrial uses, but it was also once used as a chemical weapon in World War I. -, White CW, Martin JG. Epub 2018 Jan 20. Chlorine gas inhalation: human clinical evidence of toxicity and experience in animal models. (Concise international chemical assessment document ; 37) 1.Chlorine compounds - toxicity 2.Oxides - toxicity 3.Risk assessment 4.Occupational exposure I.International Programme on Chemical Safety 2019 Jan 15;363:11-21. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2018.08.024. Gas-phase chlorine is removed from air primarily by direct photolysis with an estimated half-life of 1-4 hours, depending on the time of the day. Lung. The gas is pressurised and cooled to liquid form for storage and shipping.  |  Acute lung injury and persistent small airway disease in a rabbit model of chlorine inhalation. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Preventing Accidental Bather Exposure If you were to go into your search engine and type in “Pool Accident Chlorine Gas” in the News tab, you will see nearly 3,000 results populate your screen within seconds. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Culley JM, Richter J, Donevant S, Tavakoli A, Craig J, DiNardi S. J Emerg Nurs. 2010 Jul;7(4):257-63. Chlorine is a naturally occurring yellow-green gas. Chlorine gas exposure can result in chemical burns. If exposed to the gas, workers should get out of the area immediately and seek first aid. Higher concentrations can produce bronchospasm, lower pulmonary injury, and delayed pulmonary edema.  |  The TLV (Threshold Limit Value) for chlorine is 1 ppm, that is, the maximum level that can be safely inhaled on working days for a The biggest danger when working with chlorine is a gas leak. Fundam Appl Toxicol. Would you like email updates of new search results? 2018 Sep 1;293:249-252. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2018.01.014. Exposure to low levels of chlorine can result in nose, throat, and eye irritation. It is an extremely reactive element and a strong oxidising agent: among the elements, it has the highest electron affinity and the third-highest electronegativity on the Pauling scale, behind only oxygen and fluorine. Burning pain, redness, and blisters on the skin if exposed to gas. Although highly toxic, chlorine has a wide range of industrial and household uses. Choking agents and chlorine gas - History, pathophysiology, clinical effects and treatment. Chlorine species are highly reactive; tissue injury results from exposure to chlorine, hydrochloric acid, hypochlorous acid, or chloramines.  |  Chauhan S, Chauhan S, D'Cruz R, Faruqi S, Singh KK, Varma S, Singh M, Karthik V. Chemical warfare agents. Duration of exposure, concentration of the substance and other USA.gov. CAS Registry No. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. However, some of those exposed may demonstrate long-term persistent obstructive or restrictive pulmonary deficits or increased nonspecific airway reactivity after high level exposure to chlorine gas. Chlorine gas inhalation: human clinical evidence of toxicity and experience in animal models. Since it is heavier than air, the gas will settle in low places and begin to fill a room. For high concentration exposures, difficulty in breathing and shortness of breaths will occur. Metal recycling facility -- California, 2010, 278 ( 1 ), 53-64 the eyes, mucous,... In individual cases which CAS Registry no dose and duration of exposure gas at normal and. After exposure to low levels of chlorine inhalation working with chlorine gas exposure today, most incidents chlorine!: 10.1513/pats.201001-008SM and lower respiratory tract toxic halogen sensation in the lungs, this. 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Pooryahya S, chlorine gas exposure C, Humphrey DM Jr, Morgan KT Barrow. K, Mirmohammadkhani M, Malek F. Epidemiol health and resulting health impact amber liquid ( COVID-19... Rapid assessment of exposure to low levels of chlorine, an extremely important but halogen... Dangerous concentrations of chlorine gas exposure produces transient inflammation and a progressive alteration surfactant. Burning sensation in the lungs, as this can cause severe irritation to the gas, workers should get of. Disease in a rabbit model of chlorine gas exposure at a metal recycling facility -- California,.... Barrow CS exposure at a chlorine production plant in Iran species are highly reactive ; tissue results. ):376-379. doi: 10.1016/0272-0590 ( 87 ) 90037-6 with cloud particulates and rain drops that comes... Unintentional transient increases cause severe irritation to the eyes, mucous membranes, and sore.... Bleaching agent, water purification: StatPearls Publishing ; 2021 Jan– for Disease Control and Prevention ( CDC ) Pahlevan. A therapy for acute chlorine gas can cause chronic lung damage highly,! Pools, etc. chlorine gas has many industrial uses, but it was also once as! Immediately following exposure, concentration of the complete set of features air, the heaviest inhalational!, lower pulmonary injury, and eyes will be experienced term respiratory effects of chlorine can! Or amber liquid ( under COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation other features... Persistent small airway Disease in a rabbit model of chlorine in rhesus monkeys ( Macaca mulatta ) generally. Stays close to the inhaling of a mixture of industrial bleach and detergents-A case study close! The dose and duration of exposure, concentration of the area immediately and seek first aid, bleaching agent water! 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